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India is preparing for the 6G era: what is it and how does it work?

India, one of the fastest growing economies in the world, has announced the launch of its 6G network, thereby replacing the fifth generation of mobile communications with a new standard. 6G promises high performance and efficiency that surpasses current mobile communication standards. While the technology is still under development and there are no universal standards yet, it is planned that 6G will be launched in 2028.

What is 6G?

6G is the future wireless communication standard of the sixth generation. This standard will be deployed on top of 5G, in order to optimize the use of the previous standard and adapt it to new scenarios. The 6G standard promises us:

  • Peak terabit data transfer rate and submillisecond delay;
  • Support for mass connectivity of devices and sensors for the Internet of Things (IoT) and industrial automation;
  • Configuring Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms;
  • Increasing the level of security, privacy and reliability;
  • Reduction of energy consumption and negative impact on the environment;
  • Social and economic development, as well as digital integration.

What does 6G include?

— New frequencies (up to 3 THz)

Frequencies from 100 GHz to 3 THz are ideal for 6G, as they provide wide bandwidth and high spatial resolution. However, they also have their drawbacks, such as high losses during the propagation of radio waves and difficulty in using the equipment.

— Optical Wireless Communication (OWC)

This technology uses light waves to wirelessly transmit information. It provides high data transfer speeds, low latency and a high level of security, but it can also face problems such as atmospheric attenuation and mobility.

— Non-terrestrial Communication (NTN) technologies

These technologies involve the use of facilities such as satellites and aerial vehicles to provide wireless coverage. They can complement terrestrial networks and provide connectivity to remote areas, but require coordination and integration.

— Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS)

RIS are devices that can manipulate electromagnetic waves, improving signal quality and coverage. However, they require accurate channel assessment and management.

— Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

It is a network architecture that uses multiple antennas to increase data transmission efficiency. However, it requires high computing power and coordination.

— Blockchain

This technology provides secure and transparent transactions, but requires a lot of energy and resources.

India and other countries are preparing for the transition to 6G, which will provide new opportunities and improve the quality of life of people around the world.

The main advantages of 6G

  1. Ultra-fast and ultra-reliable connectivity: 6G enables immersive applications such as holographic telepresence, virtual and augmented reality, cloud gaming and more.
  2. Mass connection of devices and sensors: This will allow the creation of intelligent systems such as smart cities, homes, healthcare, agriculture and others.
  3. Ubiquitous and instantaneous communication: 6G will facilitate the integration of physical, digital and human space, ensuring seamless interaction.
  4. The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning: AI and ML technologies are used to optimize networks and create intelligent applications such as autonomous vehicles and smart factories.
  5. Enhanced security and privacy: 6G will ensure the protection of digital technologies such as digital identification and management by enhancing communication security.
  6. Reducing energy consumption and environmental impact: this contributes to sustainable development, as it reduces the negative impact on the environment.
  7. Social and economic development: the introduction of 6G will lead (as stated!) to improve the quality of life, productivity and well-being of society through digital integration and economic development.

Of course, this all sounds like a serious claim and unjustified (sometimes!) expectations. And we can expect to encounter a solid list of disadvantages.

Surely, the implementation of such a project involves coordination and cooperation between various stakeholders with different interests and perspectives. It also assumes that the legal, social and ethical consequences of the implementation will be studied.

At a minimum, it is necessary to raise awareness and trust: for the successful implementation and adoption of 6G, active involvement and education of society are necessary (we all remember the protests of the population in some countries and regions against the installation of 5G towers).

We live in an age of rapidly changing technologies — 5G has just come into our lives, and the next standard is already being discussed, developing and complementing it. How will our lives change with the introduction of 6G? It's hard to imagine.

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