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The simplest programming languages for beginners

Knowledge of the programming language is necessary for many high-tech jobs, for example, in the field of data processing and software development. The question that people often ask when considering a new career related to technology is: “What programming language(s) should I learn?”

Choosing a language is an important decision: most likely, you will spend months learning a programming language and years improving your skills. The most important factors to consider when choosing a language include whether it is used and whether this language will help you get a job. Some programmers can build a career by being experts in one language, but many programmers often learn new languages. A professional programmer is often fluent in three or four different languages.

JavaScript (often abbreviated to JS) is a lightweight, interpreted, object-oriented language with first-class features, best known as a scripting language for web pages, but also used in many non-browser environments. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.

JavaScript runs on the client side of the Internet, which can be used to design/program the behavior of web pages when an event occurs. JS is an easy-to-learn and, at the same time, powerful scripting language widely used to control the behavior of web pages.

Contrary to popular misconception, JavaScript is not "Interpreted Java". The basic syntax is intentionally similar to the syntax of both Java and C++ in order to reduce the number of new concepts needed to learn the language. Language constructs such as if statements, for and while loops, as well as switch and try..catch blocks function the same as in these languages (or almost the same).

C# ("C Sharp") is a modern, object-oriented programming language (OOP). The goal of creating C# was to develop a programming language that is not only easy to learn, but also supports modern functionality for all types of software development.

If you look at the history of programming languages and their features, almost every one of them was designed for a specific purpose, to solve some specific need that arose at a certain time.

However, the C# language was designed with the needs of businesses and enterprises in mind so that they could create all kinds of software using a single programming language.

C# also provides functionality to support modern software development, and supports the development needs of websites, mobile devices, and applications.The syntax of the C# language is based on C++, Java, Pascal and several other languages that are easy to learn. C# also avoids complexity and unstructured language features.

Java is a widely used object-oriented programming language and software platform that runs on billions of devices, including laptops, mobile devices, game consoles, medical devices and many others. The Java rules and syntax are based on the C and C++ languages.

One of the main advantages of Java software development is its portability. Once you have written the code for a Java program on a laptop, it is very easy to transfer this code to a mobile device. When this language was invented in 1991James Gosling of Sun Microsystems (later acquired by Oracle), the main goal was to be able to "write once, run anywhere."

It is also important to understand that Java is very different from JavaScript. JavaScript does not need to be compiled, while Java code really needs to be compiled. In addition, JavaScript only works in web browsers, while Java can be run anywhere.

New and improved software development tools are appearing on the market at an astonishing rate, displacing existing products that were once considered indispensable. In light of this constant “staff turnover”, the durability of Java is impressive.

More than two decades after its creation, Java is still the most popular language for application software development - developers continue to give it preference over languages such as Python, Ruby, PHP, Swift, C++ and others. As a result, knowledge of Java remains an important requirement for competition in the labor market.

Python is known for its high readability and simple syntax, which makes it easy to learn. “Thanks to its logic and simplicity, Python is easy to use and accessible, especially for novice coders.” Created in 1989 and released in 1994, Python has been in use for over 25 years.

Python is a high-level interpreted object-oriented programming language with dynamic semantics. Its high-level embedded data structures combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding make it very attractive for rapid application development, as well as for use as a scripting language or a binding language for connecting existing components together.

Python's simple, easy-to-learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces program maintenance costs. Python supports modules and packages, which contributes to program modularity and code reuse. The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are available in source or binary form for free for all major platforms and can be freely distributed.

PHP is a server–side scripting language that many developers use for web development. It is open source and belongs to general-purpose languages. PHP is especially suitable for web extensions and can be embedded in HTML.

It is also a general purpose language that you can use to create a variety of projects, including graphical user interfaces (GUIs), but is mainly used to create web servers.PHP runs on the Zend engine, which is the most popular implementation of the core of this language.

TypeScript is a programming language introduced to the world in 2012 by Microsoft for developers who want to create scalable JavaScript applications and use their knowledge and experience of structured and modern programming languages such as C# and C++. Is a superset of JavaScript.Makes JavaScript a full-fledged programming language, expanding its capabilities. Allows you to add static types and a strongly typed declarative structure.

TypeScript uses JavaScript and C# syntax, and implements many concepts that are characteristic of object-oriented languages - such as inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, access modifiers, and so on. Today TypeScript is used to create large open source projects such as Angular.

Kotlin is a static type object-oriented programming language that is compatible with the Java Virtual Machine, Java and Android libraries. It was developed by JetBrains in St. Petersburg, with the additional help of programmers working together on open source.

At the Google IO 2017 conference, Google announced that Kotlin will be the first officially supported program added to Android Studio. Besides Android apps, Kotlin is also useful for server and web applications.Kotlin saves developers time because a less detailed language provides more concise and less redundant code. Kotlin can be compiled into JavaScript or an LLVM encoder.

In many ways, Kotlin is considered a replacement for Java. Although it is not compatible with its syntax, it is compatible with Java code and libraries. Kotlin also has its own libraries, which were created during the early development of its community using the API for Android applications.

In Java, more redundancy leads to verbose and therefore longer code. Kotlin is more modern and simplified, which makes it easier for beginners to master. It focuses on stripped-down functional code and avoids repetitive "template" code.

The language provides “Null security” by eliminating null pointer exception errors.Semicolons at the end of each line are not needed, although Kotlin has no problems if the developer uses them out of habit. Additional features reduce the complexity and length of the code needed to achieve the final goal.

Swift is a new programming language created by Apple that is based on the methods used in Objective-C, but modernizes them to include a shorter syntax and make it easier to read.

Swift was originally created by Apple in addition to Objective-C and to modernize the programming languages offered by Apple, but from 2021 it eventually looks like a replacement for Objective-C (at least for interface development). Swift is based on modern methods that can also be seen in other modern programming languages such as JavaScript, Ruby and Kotlin.

Swift is available in the most recent versions of Xcode and can be used to create apps with iOS 7 or later, as well as macOS devices starting with Mac OS X 10.9 or later.Swift is easy to learn and easy to read - this is one of the reasons why it is becoming the only programming language for Apple platforms (iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, watchOS) and others, since it is compatible with Linux, servers, etc.

C++ (reads “c-plus-plus" and is sometimes called "pros") - an object-oriented computer language created by a famous computer scientistBy Bjorn Stroustrup as part of the evolution of the C family of languages . It was designed as a cross-platform enhancement of C to give developers a higher degree of control over memory and system resources.

Some call C++ “C with classes” because it introduces the principles of object-oriented programming, including the use of certain classes, into the structure of the C programming language. Over time, C++ remains a very useful language not only for computer programming itself, but also for teaching new programmers how object-oriented programming works.

However, it supports not only object-oriented, but also procedural and functional programming methods. Due to its high flexibility and scalability, C++ can be used to develop a wide range of software, applications, browsers, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), operating systems and games.

Today, C++ is still highly regarded for its notable portability, which makes it very easy for developers to create programs that can run on different operating systems and platforms. Despite the fact that C++ is a high-level language, since it is still close to C, it can also be used for low-level manipulations

Go is an open source programming language developed by Google. It is very useful when creating web applications with a minimum of frameworks, web servers and APIs. The Go app is also easy to run on Google's cloud platform. This language has often been noted as one of the most intuitive.

Ruby is an open source object-oriented scripting language invented in the mid-90s by Yukihiro Matsumoto.

Unlike languages such as C and C++, the scripting language does not interact directly with the hardware. It is written to a text file, and then analyzed by an interpreter and turned into code. These programs are usually procedural in nature, which means that they are read from top to bottom.

Object-oriented languages, on the other hand, break code fragments into objects that can be created and used as needed. You can reuse these objects in other parts of the program or even in other applications.

Yukihiro wanted to create a scripting language that would use object-oriented programming and increase code reuse to speed up development. This is how the Ruby programming language was born, using a simple language and syntax for data processing, and logic for solving problems.

Ruby is a dynamic programming language that puts the main emphasis on simplicity. It also ranks high in the list of the most creative languages.

Thus, we cannot say unequivocally that any one language is better than another. Each programming language can be used in different situations. Learning Python is not as useful as learning HTML, CSS and JavaScript if you plan to become a web developer. Regardless of which path you eventually choose, one thing is for sure: there is no better time to master a new skill and start a career as a programmer.

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JavaScript официально стоит на первом месте, ага)